Slave Manumissions and Certificates of Freedom, 1800-1825

This is Part Two of my paraphrased transcription of the Town Book for Castletown For the Entry of Black Children. For the whole scoop on this historical document and a link to the online version of the original, see my Part One posting with transcription of slave births. In this post, I’m describing the records of adults that are found in it (even though it’s called the Children’s Book).

Town Book for Castletown For the Entry of Black Children


  • John Corsen, heretofore the slave of Hendrick Garretson, farmer, who he agreed to manumit, is under fifty years and of sufficient ability to provide for himself, 29 Jan 1800. Attested to by Tunis Egbert & John Dorsett, Overseers of the Poor, and Benjamin Parker, Justice. (p.14)
  • Samuel Brice, about forty years of age, was freed by Thomas Hazard on 9 Dec 1825. The Overseers of the Poor, John Barnes and Garrett Martling, examined him and certified that he is able to support himself by his labor. (p. 33)

Certificates of Freedom and Eligibility to Vote

The following entries all occurred on 24 Apr 1811.  These aren’t manumissions but legal certifications that free blacks were indeed free. It seems they were filed in response to a New York State law passed on 9 Apr 1811, an “Act to prevent frauds and perjuries at elections, and to prevent slaves from voting.” This law was a voter suppression effort passed in reaction to the 1799 Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery. The law stated:

 “it shall and may be lawful for every black or mulatto person within this state, to make and exhibit proof…of his freedom, such proof to be reduced to writing [in court]… [The judge or recorder] shall certify the same in writing, stating therein a brief description of the person so adjudged to be free, his age, the place of his birth, and the time when he became free, as nearly as the same can be ascertained, and it shall be the duty of the said black or mulatto person to cause the said proof to be filed, and the certificate … to be entered of record … and a copy of the said record… shall be the certificate of freedom required by the preceding section, to be produced at all such elections, and unless such certificate shall be produced, no black or mulatto person shall be permitted to vote at any such election…”

The following certificates were all dated 24 Apr 1811:

  • Henry Ryes, born in the town of Northfield, 22 years of age, obtained his freedom 24 Apr 1811.  David Mesereau, Judge of the Court of Common Pleas (p. 16)
  • Joseph Ryers, former slave of Gozen Ryers whose will specified that he should be freed. David Mesereau, Judge of the Court of Common Pleas (p. 17)
  • The above Joseph Ryers, in turn, frees his own son Harry, also on 24 Apr 1811.  David Mesereau, Judge of the Court of Common Pleas (p.18)
  • Two more black men, Joe and James, also slaves of Gozen Ryerrs, deceased, are certified free by Jonathan Lozier, Surrogate for the Estate of Ryerrs  (p.18)

The Election

On the very last page of the book, there is a long paragraph of very faint writing (probably pencil) that is undated and unsigned.  It records the location of polling places in an upcoming election for a “Person to Represent the County of Richmond in Assembly,” probably the same election for which the certificates above were filed.

“The poll of said election will be held at the house of Thomas Hazard on Monday the tenth of November at the hour of ten o’clock in the forenoon, on Tuesday at the house of Danz’d Barger at the hour of ten o’clock, on wennsday at the house of Vincent Bodine at ten o’clock.”